Urartian Gernot Wilhelm; 6. Afro-Asiatic John Huehnergard; 7. Egyptian and Coptic Antonio Loprieno; 8. Ugaritic Dennis Pardee; Hebrew P. Kyle McCarter, Jr. Phoenician and Punic Jo Ann Hackett; Canaanite Dialects Dennis Pardee; Aramaic Stuart Creason; Ge'ez Aksum Gene Gragg; Ancient North Arabian M.
- Elamite language;
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Macdonald; Indo-European Henry M. Hoenigswald and J. Clackson; Hittite Calvert Watkins; Luvian H.
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Product | Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum
It can be said to display a kind of Suffixaufnahme in that the nominal class markers of the head are also attached to any modifiers, including adjectives, noun adjuncts , possessor nouns and even entire clauses. Documents from the Old Elamite and early Neo-Elamite stages are rather scarce.
Neo-Elamite can be regarded as a transition between Middle and Achaemenid Elamite, with respect to language structure. Elamite is agglutinative but with fewer morphemes per word than, for example, Sumerian or Hurrian and Urartian and it is mostly suffixing.
The ancient languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum
The Elamite nominal system is thoroughly pervaded by a noun class distinction, which combines a gender distinction between animate and inanimate with a personal class distinction, corresponding to the three persons of verbal inflection first, second, third, plural. The suffixes are as follows: Animate:. The animate third-person suffix -r can serve as a nominalizing suffix and indicate nomen agentis or just members of a class. Modifiers follow their nominal heads. In noun phrases and pronoun phrases, the suffixes referring to the head are appended to the modifier, regardless of whether the modifier is another noun such as a possessor or an adjective.
Sometimes the suffix is preserved on the head as well:. This system, in which the noun class suffixes function as derivational morphemes as well as agreement markers and indirectly as subordinating morphemes, is best seen in Middle Elamite. The suffix -na , which probably originated from the inanimate agreement suffix -n followed by the nominalizing particle -a see below , appeared already in Neo-Elamite. In general, no special possessive pronouns are needed in view of the construction with the noun class suffixes.
Nevertheless, a set of separate third-person animate possessives -e sing. Conjugation I is the only one with special endings characteristic of finite verbs as such, as shown below. Its use is mostly associated with active voice, transitivity or verbs of motion , neutral aspect and past tense meaning.
Conjugations II and III can be regarded as periphrastic constructions with participles; they are formed by the addition of the nominal personal class suffixes to a passive perfective participle in -k and to an active imperfective participle in -n , respectively. Accordingly, conjugation II expresses a perfective aspect , hence usually past tense, and an intransitive or passive voice, whereas conjugation III expresses an imperfective non-past action.
The corresponding conjugation is, for the perfective, first person singular hutta-k-k , second person singular hutta-k-t , third person singular hutta-k-r , third person plural hutta-k-p ; and for the imperfective, 1st person singular hutta-n-k , 2nd person singular hutta-n-t , 3rd person singular hutta-n-r , 3rd person plural hutta-n-p.
In Achaemenid Elamite, the Conjugation 2 endings are somewhat changed: 1st person singular hutta-k-ut , 2nd person singular hutta-k-t , 3rd person singular hutta-k hardly ever attested in predicative use , 3rd person plural hutta-p. In Achaemenid Elamite, only the third option exists. There is no consensus on the exact meaning of the periphrastic forms with ma- , but durative, intensive or volitional interpretations have been suggested.
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The optative is expressed by the addition of the suffix -ni to Conjugations I and II. The imperative is identical to the second person of Conjugation I in Middle Elamite. In Achaemenid Elamite, it is the third person that coincides with the imperative.
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In Achaemenid Elamite, the inanimate form in-ni has been generalized to all persons, and concord has been lost. Nominal heads are normally followed by their modifiers, but there are occasional inversions. Submit a new link. Submit a new text post. Get an ad-free experience with special benefits, and directly support Reddit.
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